Supplementary material to: Pomberger et al. (2022): "Ancient bells from Ovilava/Wels – First studies"

Publication date: 21 Feb 2024
Publisher: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (NHMW)
Collections: Prehistory
Resource type: Text
License: CC BY
CC BY 4.0 International
Tags: Bells Idiophones Muscial instruments Music archaeology
Countries: Austria, Hungary
Chronology: Roman Empire


About 100 references mentioning bells, cymbals and sounding ore in various ancient and late antique texts were found and classified according to their function.

Usage Notes

The references were found through reading ancient texts and PDF search function.

Table 1 shows all quotations in ancient literature mentioning metall idiophones and translations. 

Table 2 relates the single quotations to functions.


Agency Program Proj. Id Proj. Title
FWF Austrian Science Fund Hertha-Firnberg-Programm T 1136-G Metallic Idiophones between 800 BC and 800 AD in Central Europe


Pomberger, B. M., Hackl, M., Wegner, W. & Mühlhans, J. (2022a) Ancient bells from Ovilava/Wels – First studies. Römisches Österreich, 45, 127-191.


File Description Size
Hackl_M_Pomberger_BM_2024_Ancient_literature_mentioning_metall_idiophones.csv Table 1. References to bells, cymbals and sounding ore in ancient literature sources (CSV format) 0.09 MB
Hackl_M_Pomberger_BM_2024_Ancient_literature_mentioning_metall_idiophones.pdf Table 2. References to bells and their function (PDF format) 0.14 MB
Hackl_M_Pomberger_BM_2024_Ancient_literature_mentioning_metall_idiophones.xlsx Table 1. References to bells, cymbals and sounding ore in ancient literature sources (MS Excel format) 0.05 MB